Data collection and analysis in vehicles
Technologies that actively log and possibly identify a driver (e.g., log when and how you drive), identification (e.g., can the car know when you are driving and feeling unwell? can this be applied to court?), advertisements (how long before we see custom advertisements on the head unit?), etc.
- “BMW provides evidence of precise telemetry data in verdict 113 kls 34/15” (Germany only, put deepL works)
- Automotive section of https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-642-04468-7.pdf
Self-driving & sensor fusion
Will cars be self-driving, if yes how? How do we judge who is at fault if it is a probabilistic algorithm making a decision? How do you prove it to a judge? What could go wrong? Can we attack sensors? Can we prevent attacks? If yes, how? At which cost?
Components can be replaced, updated, and possibly connected to the Internet. How do we assure that an attacker doesn’t gain remote control of your vehicle? How do we protect the communication between ECUs? Similarly, ECUs are cost-driven embedded controllers, with limited RAM and CPU. How will this evolve? Is the current architecture and design sufficient?
Telematic Control Unit, eCall, and connected dongles
TCUs can be used for several things: from safety to data collection, remote control and debugging, update over the air etc. These devices will possibly revolutionise the automotive industry, as they will allow OEMs to (right now is not) securely push updates to 1) fix bugs, and 2) add features (e.g., TESLA). But many things could go wrong, especially as most of them have little to no security. How can we solve this?
Vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication
It is definitely true that in the future of mobility, vehicles will be connected to everything. Assuming the two main technologies will be vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I), how this communication will happen? Via WLAN or mobile networks? With or without secure communication? What is the state of the art technologies? How all the OEMs manage or (plan) to implement them? Are there any standards? Can this be done security? What could go wrong? How can this affect security & privacy?
- https://media.daimler.com/marsMediaSite/en/instance/ko/Under-the-microscope-Innovative-Mercedes-me-connect-services-Parking– Finding-a-parking-space-made-easy.xhtml?oid=39904686
Vehicle testing, attestation & dynamic homologation
Today, cars are black-boxes which cannot be tested except by automakers themselves. This makes it very difficult for a third-party to verify claims. Also, it is currently impossible to re-configure them, as they would lose their homologation. The question is, how will this process evolve? Can it be made more open and streamlined? Can the community be involved in developing a road-legal vehicle? Can and how you prove to a third party that a vehicle is running the software you signed? How do you test your vehicle?
- Dieselgate – a timeline of Germany car emissions fraud scandal
- There are many limitations, a small example: https://www.feabhas.com/sites/default/files/2016-06/A quick guide to ISO 26262_0_0.pdf
Interesting Links About Automotive Security & Privacy
TCU and remote control
Renault battery lease agreement They claim they will ‘block’ your battery if you stop paying the lease. This is true, as we previously reverse-engineered their TCU and found they can actually do it, and much more (tracking, remote control, check and log when you speed, etc.)
Automotive Security & Background
Funny guys that do a lot of car attacks. Provide a good background on ECUs, CAN, etc. in their white paper
Self-driving & accountability
UBER self-driving accident, whose fault is that? How you prove it? Judges can hardly interpret a CNN output https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Elaine_Herzberg
Automotive testing & accountability
‘We didn’t know about the ‘test-mode’ in our ECUs.’ How can certification authorities regulate vehicles? Often composed by 20 or so ECUs, each doing something unknown to the tester? https://www.cleanenergywire.org/factsheets/dieselgate-timeline-car-emissions-fraud-scandal-germany